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By Michael N. Bruton (auth.), Michael N. Bruton (eds.)

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O. Z. Borghi for expertly finishing our line drawings. CNPq supported part of the study (grant 300992179), FAPESP defrayed air travel costs (grant 83/0235-0), and IBDF allowed use of working facilities in the Pantanal. J. P. Hailman . 1976. Fish cleaning symbiosis: notes on juvenile angelfishes (Pomacanthus, Chaetodontidae) and comparisons with other species. Z. Tierpsychol. 42: 129-138. Chinery, M . 1979. Killers of the wild. , London. 224 pp. Curio, E. 1976. The ethology of predation. Springer-Verlag , Berlin.

4) that limit, define and enhance the options that chondrichthyians have in exploiting their environment, and which in their evolutionary history may have limited them to less diversity than the bony fishes, class Osteichthyes, and particularly the rayfinned fishes, subclass Actinopterygii. The cartilaginous fishes have a simple yet versatile cartilaginous skeleton, primary jaws with transverse replicating rows of teeth and small toothlike placoid scales or dermal denticles. 5 m (Compagno 1981).

The Carboniferous edestoid Caseodus is a tachypelagic durophage shark, with small crushing teeth. the Cretaceous but died out and were replaced by more progressive toothless seabirds in the Cenozoic. A few of the Eocene penguins and an Oligocene-Miocene group of flightless pelicaniform diving birds (Plotopteridae) were considerably larger than the heaviest living marine bird (the emperor penguin, maximum about 46kg), and may have reached 136 kg for the largest Eocene penguins. Simpson (1976) and Fedducia (1980) suggest that these large diving birds may have become extinct as a result of competition with and predation by marine mammals, which were radiating in the Miocene.

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