By David I. Bower
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Extra resources for An Introduction to Polymer Physics
When waves of any kind are scattered from structures with which they interact the angles of scatter are large when the lengths within the structure are comparable to the wavelength and small when the lengths are large compared with the wavelength of the waves. Two types of X-ray scattering are therefore used in the study of polymers, wide-angle X-ray scattering, or WAXS, and small-angle X-ray scattering, or SAXS, depending on the scale of the features studied. e. takes place at well deﬁned angles, only when the structures are periodic.
2 give ﬁrst some statistical information about the production and use of polymers. 1 illustrates the growth in production of polymers compared with the static state of production of some important metals. 1 also illustrates that the volume production of some of the commoner polymers roughly equals or exceeds that of aluminium and copper, and that the total volume production of all the polymers listed is about 60% of the volume production of steel. The versatility of polymers, already commented on, must be taken to apply not only to these materials as a class, but also to many of its individual members.
2 Additives and composites Additives are used for a wide variety of purposes, and may be classiﬁed as ﬁllers, anti-oxidants, stabilisers, plasticisers, ﬁre retardants, pigments and lubricants. Anti-oxidants and stabilisers are usually used in rather small quantities in order to prevent degradation of the polymer when it is exposed to air, light and heat; the intention here is to maintain the properties of the polymer rather than to modify them. Fillers may be used either simply to produce a cheaper product or to improve the properties, in particular the mechanical properties.