By Dennis F. Kohn, Sally K. Wixson, William J. White, G. John Benson
go here Anesthesia and Analgesia in Laboratory Animals focuses solely at the distinctive anesthetic, analgesic, and postoperative care standards linked to experimental surgical procedure. subsidized through the yank university of Laboratory Animal medication, this informative paintings offers the reader with brokers, tools, and methods for anesthesia and analgesia that determine humane and winning procedural results. Key good points * specializes in a wide selection of animal species utilized in learn * presents a finished review of the pharmacology of anesthetics and analgesics * contains tracking of analgesia and anesthesia * Organizes subject matters by way of species for brokers and techniques of delivering anesthesia, analgesia, and post-op care to animals * No different American textual content is dedicated completely to this subject
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Extra info for Anesthesia and Analgesia in Laboratory Animals
Monitors that measure the concentration of gaseous anesthetics are noninvasive and cause minimal interference with research procedures. They are either incorporated into the anesthetic deliv- 2. P H A R M A C O L O G Y OF I N H A L A T I O N 39 ANESTHETICS ery apparatus or are designed to aspirate a gas sample from the apparatus. In order to assess alveolar anesthetic concentrations, the monitor must be placed either on the expiratory side of the anesthetic machine or between the junction of the delivery system and the airway of the animal.
05 sec. , 1990; Westenskow & Silva, 1991). B. Specific Methods of Measurement Methods that specifically identify anesthetics are used when gas mixtures have varying composition and contain more than two gases. , 1993). All gases either absorb or emit electromagnetic radiation in the infrared, visible or ultraviolet light ranges (Payne, 1971). Because all polyatomic gases are excited by specific infrared wavelengths, they have characteristic absorption patterns in the range of 1-15 Ix (Payne, 1971).
The oxygen in nitrous oxide is not available for cellular metabolic needs. In all cases, a minimum of 20% of the inspired gases must be oxygen. Oxygen flow rates should be based on the metabolic needs of the animal and the nitrous oxide added to this base flow. The high flow rates using nitrous oxide result in increased heat loss from the animal. Warm, moist exhaled air is either diluted or washed away from the animal. The high total gas flow also increases the cost associated with anesthesia. Because nitrous oxide and oxygen become carrier gases for the volatile anesthetics such as halothane and isoflurane, the amount of anesthetic vaporized increases proportionally to the increase in flow.