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By H. A. McGee Jr. (auth.), K. D. Timmerhaus (eds.)

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Read or Download Advances in Cryogenic Engineering: Proceedings of the 1963 Cryogenic Engineering Conference University of Colorado College of Engineering and National Bureau of Standards Boulder Laboratories Boulder, Colorado August 19–21, 1963 PDF

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Extra info for Advances in Cryogenic Engineering: Proceedings of the 1963 Cryogenic Engineering Conference University of Colorado College of Engineering and National Bureau of Standards Boulder Laboratories Boulder, Colorado August 19–21, 1963

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70°C - . 5 min Fig. 8. Recrystallization af ice. Electron micrographs of vacuum evaporated replicas made from ice films praduced in high vacuum. [Fram ["]. by permissian af H. T. ] 36 P. Mazur presently attainable and whieh would be less subjeet to the geometrie limitations of sam pIe size and shape. Dieleetrie or mierowave heating for example, may be potential approaehes for attaining high warming rates [27]. Perhaps other techniques ean be developed for aehieving extremely rapid cooling. This diseussion has dealt almost entirely with the problems and phenomena engendered during eooling and warming-and for good reason.

J. E. Lovelock, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 10,414 (1953). T. Araki and T. Nei, Low Temp. Sei. (B), 20, 57 (1962). P. M. Gehenio and B. J. , 17, 52 (1958). J. L. Stephenson, j. Biophys. Biochem. Cytol. , 2, 45 (1956). H. Ffrnandez-Moran, Ann. N. Y. Acad. , 85, 689 (1960). G. F. Doebbler and A. P. Rinfret, J. , 85, 485 (1963). B. J. Luyet and P. M. e and Deat" at Low Temperatures, Biodynamica, Normandy, Mo. (1940). 26. H. T. Meryman, PTOC. Ro)'. Soc. (London) B, 147,452 (1957). 27. D. A. Copson, llrlicro,oave Heating, AVI Publish.

25]. The reason for this sensitivity to warming velo city is not known with certainty, but one possibility is that warming must be sufficiently rapid to prevent the growth of microcrystals by recrystallization [12]. This is the process in which in a mixture of various size crystals the larger crystals grow at the expense of the smaller. :!. T through the use of the Clausius-Clapeyron relation, shows that the vapor pressure of ice at a given temperature va ries inversely with the radius of the curvature of the crystal and hence with its size.

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