By S. Craig, M. Martinez
This ebook represents an immense step in bringing jointly quite a few strands of analysis approximately attitudinal ambivalence and public opinion. Essays by means of a amazing team of political scientists and social psychologists offer a conceptual framework for knowing how ambivalence is at present understood and measured, in addition to its relevance to the mass public's ideals approximately our political associations and nationwide identification. The theoretical insights, methodological concepts, and empirical analyses will upload considerably to our wisdom in regards to the nature of ambivalence specifically, and the constitution and evolution of political attitudes ordinarily.
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Additional info for Ambivalence and the Structure of Political Opinion
To be clear, it is not the variance itself that defines ambivalence, but rather the sign on key covariates: What is the effect of the condition where a respondent exhibits Ambivalence as Internal Conflict 23 equal levels of support for two or more predispositions? , negative, suggesting the absence of ambivalence)? We also employed a second measure of “ambivalence” using response latency timers. As soon as the interviewer finished asking a question, he or she hit a key which initiated a timer; then, once the respondent began to answer, the interviewer hit another key stopping the timer.
These points are readily observable in several related analyses of our data. 7 In each case, what is purportedly “ambivalence” needs to be modeled in such a way that we can observe some basic interactions. Our contention is that ambivalence is indicated when the effect of both additional information and the coincidence of nominally conflicting predispositions tend to increase response variability. ”) We also wish to illustrate the potential for gender effects on subjective reports of ambivalence, so that is included in our model as well.
Heteroskedastic probit is an increasingly common tool which varies the familiar probit model for dichotomous choice, by noticing that the errors of the dichotomous choice model cannot be assumed to be constant (and set to 1 by a scale factor). Instead, the model permits the assumption that choices have a heterogeneous error structure. As with all maximum-likelihood models (and, indeed, a very large class of statistical models generally), the estimates for this model are obtained by iterative search over the parameter space ͚y log ⌽ exp (Z ␥) Xi ␤ N log L(␤, ␥ ͉ y) ϭ i i i ΄ Ϫ (1 Ϫ yi) log 1 Ϫ ⌽ expX(Z␤ ␥)΅ i i where yi is the dichotomous dependent variable, Xi are a family of causal variables for the choice component, ␤ is a vector of coefficients for the choice model variables, Zi are a family of causal variables for the variance component, and ␥ is a vector of coefficients for the variance model variables.