By Renzhi Hou
This publication is ready the town of Peiping in China, often referred to as Beijing and Peking, and a urban of significant old value. Divided into 3 components, this paintings explores Peiping first as a frontier urban at a time while the nice Wall was once tested, from the Chou dynasty (ca.1122—220 B.C.) until eventually the T’ang Dynasties as much as the Khitan career (A.D. 590—937). the second one half explores Peiping because it turns into a countrywide centre, during the Liao Dynasty and the Chin Dynasty, till 1234, and the 3rd half explores the way it grew to become the capital of the chinese language empire, until eventually 1911. This paintings is a historic geography and the advent info topographical positive aspects and geographical family of the town, describing the best way the mountains upward thrust from the obvious developing concave hands to surround Peiping, resulting in the identify, the ‘Bay of Peiping’. We research that the mountains often achieve over 3000ft and feature essentially no foot-hills, when the bay itself is stuffed with sediments of gravel, sand, loam and loess which were deposited in horizontal strata, to a superb intensity. a variety of illustrations and figures are integrated, and readers will see how town sits among rivers, the Hun (浑河 or Muddy River) and the Pai (白河 or White River). those chapters demonstrate how each one river has made its contribution to the cloth improvement of the town and its environs, together with via irrigation and because the Hun River shifted its path. because of the geography of the sector, just about all roads major from the northern lands of Mongolia and Manchuria to the nice simple of North China within the south are guaranteed to converge at Peiping. The historic outcomes of this, in addition to neighborhood weather stipulations and different points of geography are explored during this booklet, which strains the ancient upward push to eminence of Peiping.
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Extra info for An Historical Geography of Peiping
The modern equivalents of the five frontier districts can be described roughly in the following table: 7 Li Tao-yüan, Shui Ching Chu (郦道元《水经注》, Commentary on the Book of Rivers), Ssu-gu Pei Yao edition, 11/2a. 8 However, a question arises here in connection with the river Fu T’o. The present lower course of Fu T’o is about 80 miles south of I Shui and flows almost parallel to it. How could these two parallel rivers have served as a common boundary of Yen at the same time? They might have been referred to only in a general way without any intention to give the precise boundary as in the case of other directions mentioned above.
The empire was divided into a number of administrative units called Chün (郡), or commanderies, and each Chün in turn into Hsien (县), or districts. Over every Chün and Hsien was placed a member of the bureaucracy. 4 The city Chi then became the chief city of a small Chün named Kuang-yang (广阳) which lay immediately in the Bay of Peiping and part of the adjacent plain, a territory which may have represented the original nucleus of the former state of Yen. 5 Chün was thus a different kind of administrative unit from the feudal states which had preceded it.
Upstream from the highway, there are rapids, but as the land flattens out into the plain and their flow becomes more gentle, so the beds become silted and the rivers wide, shallow, and meandering. In winter times, most of the smaller rivers become dry. But during the rainy season in summer, a few days’ or even a few hours’ rainfall will make the lower courses of these rivers overflow, and great shallow lakes often develop in the interstream depressions [8, p. 169]. We therefore find that the course of the ancient highway passes through the places on each river where it is most easily forded—neither upstream in the rapids nor downstream where the rivers are wide and liable to flood.