By Stanley E. Curtis (auth.), Gary P. Moberg (eds.)
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The displaced behavior of nibbling on the chain appeared to help the animals cope with the psychological aspects of the stressor and in turn alleviated some of the physiological responses. Behavior therefore offers the animal an opportunity to either alleviate the stressor by removing itself from the stimulus or to ameliorate the impact of the stressor by engaging in displacements. Such behavioral responses to a stressor undoubtedly are biologically more costeffective than a response by either the autonomic or the neuroendocrine system.
Their reactions to restraint were stronger for all measures (except the release of growth hormone) than their reactions to being alone in the novel environment. Comparison of the response patterns of these two groups reveals that Biological Response to Stress 39 the difference was qualitative rather than quantitative, consistent with the hypothesis of two distinct modes of response. Both of the patterns obtained are presumably available to any individual and neither is inherently maladaptive. They lead to different consequences, however, which may be maladaptive, depending on the nature of the situation.
Scott, J. , and J. L. Fuller. Genetics and the Social Behavior of the Dog. Chicago, IL: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1965. 37. Sloan, R. J. Relationships Between Behavior and Reproduction in Captive Wild Norway Rats (Rattus norvegicus). Syracuse: State Univ. of New York, College Environ. Sci. , 1973. PhD thesis. 38. Sumption, L. J. Multiple sire mating in swine: evidence of natural selection for mating efficiency. J. Agric. Sci. 56: 31-37, 1961. 39. Tschanz, B. Reaktionsnormen und Adaptation. In: Das Tier im Experiment, edited by W.