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By Russell H. Tuttle

In this masterwork, Russell H. Tuttle synthesizes an unlimited examine literature in primate evolution and behaviour to give an explanation for how apes and people advanced with regards to each other, and why people grew to become a bipedal, tool-making, culture-inventing species unique from different hominoids. alongside the way in which, he refutes the influential idea that males are primarily killer apes--sophisticated yet instinctively competitive and damaging beings.

Situating people in a vast context, Tuttle musters convincing proof from morphology and up to date fossil discoveries to bare what early primates ate, the place they slept, how they realized to stroll upright, how mind and hand anatomy advanced concurrently, and what else occurred evolutionarily to reason people to diverge from their closest relations. regardless of our genomic similarities with bonobos, chimpanzees, and gorillas, people are certain between primates in occupying a symbolic area of interest of values and ideology in accordance with symbolically mediated cognitive procedures. even though apes show behaviors that strongly recommend they could imagine, salient components of human culture--speech, mating proscriptions, kinship constructions, and ethical codes--are symbolic platforms that aren't appear in ape niches.

This encyclopedic quantity is either a milestone in primatological study and a critique of what's recognized and but to be chanced on approximately human and ape potential.

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Eyes close set and face directly forward. • Bony postorbital closure. 14 • Fused mental symphysis. 3). • Relatively small ears with limited mobility. • Versatile facial muscles. • Absence of a rhinarium (habitually moist nose tip). • Fully developed hand with independent thumb [except some colobine and ateline monkeys that have mere nubbins]. 2. Prosimian (crowned lemur) and anthropoid (Diana monkey) heads and skulls. Superfamily Circles Extant Anthropoidea comprises three superfamilies: the Ceboidea, the Cercopithecoidea, and the Hominoidea.

D) Colobine multichambered stomach. • Dorsoventrally flattened chest. • Recurved ribs. • Long collar bones and mobile shoulders. • Shoulder blades on the dorsal chest wall. 6. Pronograde monkey and human illustrating how the shape of the thorax and the length of clavicles position the scapulae on the sides of the thorax in pronograde monkeys and on the back of the thorax in humans (and apes). Consequently, the glenoid fossae in monkeys articulate atop the humeri, while hominoid glenoid fossae face laterally or cranially.

Versatile facial muscles. • Absence of a rhinarium (habitually moist nose tip). • Fully developed hand with independent thumb [except some colobine and ateline monkeys that have mere nubbins]. 2. Prosimian (crowned lemur) and anthropoid (Diana monkey) heads and skulls. Superfamily Circles Extant Anthropoidea comprises three superfamilies: the Ceboidea, the Cercopithecoidea, and the Hominoidea. Each superfamily represents a major adaptive radiation on an extensive landmass. Extant Catarrhini comprises the Cercopithecoidea and the Hominoidea, which live in the Old World.

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